Lynch, Paul. “Shadow Living: Toward Spiritual Exercises for Teaching.” College English 80.6 (2018): 499-516. Print.
Paul Lynch writes about a state of mind experienced by some seasoned writing teachers that he equates with Thomas Newkirk’s “emotional underlife of teaching” (qtd. in Lynch 500). Drawing on Paul Kameen’s depiction of this state of mind in Writing/Teaching, Lynch describes it as a point at which a well-developed set of teaching practices ceases to make classroom practice meaningful (499-500).
Further exploring this phenomenon, Lynch considers Bill Readings’s contention in The University in Ruins that teachers who see themselves as a “rhetor rather than magister” find that their “mastery” of teaching practice may not mesh with the need, as a rhetor, to “redefine pedagogy as ‘a relation, a network of obligation” rather than as a platform from which to dispense knowledge (qtd. in Lynch 500; emphasis original). Recognizing the contradictions between the accumulation of professional expertise and an understanding of teaching as relational leads, in Lynch’s view, to questions like Kameen’s “What am I doing here?” In Lynch’s view, teachers cannot easily resolve this contradiction and should consider instead, in Kameen’s words, “living in the shadow of [the question’s] imperative” (qtd. in Lynch 501; emendation in Lynch).
Central to the kind of mastery composition specialists commonly value, Lynch proposes, is faith in reflection as a means of becoming a critically aware teacher. Citing Kathleen Blake Yancey’s discussions of reflection, Lynch writes of the assumption that reflection can aid teachers just as it can students by allowing them to “consciously and therefore critically reflect on their own success and failure with an eye toward improvement” (502). Such reflection commonly involves exploring one’s experiences through writing. Donald Schön, in The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action, further develops the view that by combining “technical knowledge and practical experience” (503), experts like teachers can assemble a set of responses to the problems they encounter.
Lynch turns to critiques of reflection as a means of resolving the problem of the “emotional underlife” teachers may encounter. From Kenneth Burke he takes the concept of “trained incapacity” to argue that a teacher faced with a loss of faith in his or her professional practice may resort to reflection as an attempt to increase mastery, which may make responses to complex relational engagements “automatic” (Schön, qtd. in Lynch 504) and, in Lynch’s view, a grounds for “boredom, burnout, and breakdown” (504).
Casey Boyle similarly suggests that reflection as commonly understood “operates on a destructive subject-object distinction” that assumes that people can separate their “agency” from the environment in which it is created and perpetuated, examining their actions rationally to improve them based on technical assessments of success (505). Lynch also draws on Robert Yagelski’s views, in Writing as a Way of Being, that written reflection as often practiced sees writing “simply as a way to record and express one’s experience,” whereas writing can also be viewed as “an experience in and of itself” (507).
Lynch proposes that the feelings expressed by Kameen and Newkirk “cannot be addressed by a reconsidered lesson plan or a revamped pedagogy” (507); indeed, in his view, resorting to these strategies compounds the problem. He suggests instead the use of writing as a form of reflection as experience that he calls “spiritual.” Spirituality, in his view, need not be specifically religious but can serve as a way of “liv[ing] in the shadow of questions that do not seem amenable to reflective thinking” (507-08) and thus avoiding the need for control that may lead to “demoralization,” defined as a feeling that, for the teachers in question, moves beyond frustration that old ways no longer work to an awareness that “they’ve lost any sense of which ways might” (505).
Lynch draws on Foucault to propose a regimen of “care of the self” (qtd. in Lynch 508) that includes “practices through which subjects might shape themselves” (508). This self-formation addresses character through, in Debra Hawhee’s words, “intensive attention and discipline, painful repeated exercise” (qtd. in Lynch 509). Among the exercises that promote self-re-shaping is a form of writing related to the development of “[p]hilosophic wisdom,” which, for Lynch, is not about acquiring topic mastery but rather “a matter of living a certain way of life” (509). This view counters the view that Lynch, via Foucault, attributes to Descartes, in which the self can be held apart from the knowledge it acquires, with the result that the knowledge does not affect “the structure of the subject itself” (qtd. in Lynch 510).
Similarly, Lynch cites the philosopher Pierre Hadot, for whom the “study of philosophy in the ancient world was more concerned with how the student lived than with what the student knew” (510). As an example of how writing furthered such a “spiritual program,” Hadot and Lynch reference the Meditations of Marcus Aurelius, which they present not as exercises to portray experience but rather to engage more deeply with it (510-14). The spiritual exercise of writing for this purpose allows Aurelius “a chance to examine his conduct” each day (511) and to prepare himself for “the challenges of . . . daily living” (512). Aurelius’s view, quoted by Lynch, is that
The art of living is more like the wrestler’s art than the dancer’s in this regard, that it must stand ready and firm to meet whatever happens to it, even when unforeseen. (512)
In order to develop this stance, Lynch proposes, philosophical wisdom requires engaging rather than lamenting “the writer’s daily struggle (shadow boxing) against himself” (512). Lynch sees this kind of self-formative writing as important in the effort of “dwelling within a network of obligations,” which teachers must accept if they are to survive their encounters with the emotional underlife (512).
Contending that more experienced and capable teachers are among the most prone to confront this emotional quandary, Lynch concedes that reflection as most often understood can increase knowledge, but argues that knowledge alone is not sufficient (513). The kind of written reflection as spiritual exercise practiced by Aurelius and other philosophers, he asserts, can offer a way “to practice interdependence” rather than increase control (513). He argues that such exercise may bolster what Hawhee calls “a pedagogy of association” (qtd. in Lynch 514), that is, a pedagogy based on relationship and obligation:
Why would our students want to associate with us? And how will we be formed by the association? These are the kinds of questions that we might answer by practicing writing as a spiritual exercise. (514)
October 23, 2018 at 9:15 am
I consider it to be each of the three together. For a considerable length of time, authors, craftsmen and performers have been utilizing programmed writing in different structures to free their psyches, unclog the imaginative energies and let considerations, thoughts and dreams stream professional ghostwriter It resembles releasing what’s inside in a non-judgmental manner. It is mentally restorative like keeping a journal diary of individual considerations.
October 23, 2018 at 9:11 am
I consider it to be each of the three together. For a considerable length of time, authors, craftsmen and performers have been utilizing programmed writing in different structures to free their psyches, unclog the imaginative energies and let considerations, thoughts and dreams stream. It resembles releasing what’s inside in a non-judgmental manner. It is mentally restorative like keeping a journal diary of individual considerations.
October 23, 2018 at 10:51 am
Thank you for your comment! I, too, found this an energizing argument. The original develops the idea more fully, so you might want to check it out if you have access to College English.
August 17, 2018 at 10:41 pm
It is stunning and deeply reassuring to read something so close to my own experience this summer in the wake of especially the past year of teaching, and to feel the words reframing and validating the experience and process of reconceiving not just how to teach, but whether to teach at all, and why, whether or not it was still a viable activity for me with any hope of meaningful success and impact for students — whether I could remain a viable part of such a relationship, or offer anything of perceived or actual value to students — which value in the past had seemed so quantitatively and qualitatively clear. Though openly reflective, exploratory writing was only one aspect of the process for me, and might not be the most supportive method for all who find themselves navigating this type of professional and personal crisis point, one benefit of such writing is the record it provides for further reflection, as well as its own creative quality — the tendency of reflective, exploratory writing to become literally creative writing, as new insights lead to new ideas about how to live and act differently in light of those insights. Perhaps most appreciated is the broader perspective and respectful tone of the article; so much attention has been paid (properly) to the deeper, broader lives of students, yet so often the burden is placed on teachers to magically know how to address and supply the needs of those lives, far beyond any curricular purpose for which we have been trained, hired, and paid to teach – but as if those teachers themselves have no larger lives or personhoods to be considered. Thank you!
August 18, 2018 at 9:13 am
This line in your comment rang so true to me (among many others): “so often the burden is placed on teachers to magically know how to address and supply the needs of those lives, far beyond any curricular purpose for which we have been trained, hired, and paid to teach –” So many times I knew students faced problems far beyond my ability to resolve. Over and over, I try to tell people about the heroic work teachers do. I’m glad to have been able to include this article on CCW. Thank you so much for your comment.
August 18, 2018 at 11:52 am
Thank you – and good luck with your students this year, if you are teaching!
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August 18, 2018 at 3:47 pm
I’m retired. This blog is my way of staying in the loop. Good luck to you as well!